A study looked at 6.8 billion people around the world from 134 nations and developed a new way of measuring gender inequality. It found that women are better off in more countries (stock)


Men ‘face MORE discrimination than women’: Global study claims males receive the raw end of the deal with harsher punishments for the same crime, compulsory military service and more deaths at work

  • Men are disadvantaged in 91 countries compared to 43 nations for women  
  • The UK, the US and Australia all discriminate against men more, a study claims
  • Italy, Israel and China are harder environments for women,  researchers say 
  • Scientists created the Basic Index of Gender Inequality to assess inequality
  • Closer the BIGI score is to zero the greater the level of equality is in the country

Women are better off in more countries than men are, a new study has found.  

A method that assesses the forms of hardship and discrimination facing men and women has revealed males have it harder in 91 countries out of 134. 

Women were disadvantaged in only 43. 

The study looked at 6.8 billion people around the world and scientists developed a new way of measuring gender inequality. 

The UK, the US and Australia all discriminate against men more whereas Italy, Israel and China are harder environments for women, according to the study. 

Researchers say this is due to men receiving harsher punishments for the same crime, compulsory military service and more occupational deaths than women. 

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A study looked at 6.8 billion people around the world from 134 nations and developed a new way of measuring gender inequality. It found that women are better off in more countries (stock)

The study was carried out by the University of Essex and the University of Missouri-Columbia and published in the journal Plos One

Scientists created a database which deciphers a nation’s discrimination called the Basic Index of Gender Inequality (BIGI).

The closer the BIGI score is to zero the greater the level of equality is in the country. 

If it is a negative number it indicates females are better off and if the BIGI score is positive it shows males are less discriminated against.  

The index is based on three factors: educational opportunities, healthy life expectancy and overall life satisfaction.  

Professor Gijsbert Stoet, from the Department of Psychology at Essex, said: ‘No existing measure of gender inequality fully captures the hardships that are disproportionately experienced by men in many countries and so they do not fully capture the extent to which any specific country is promoting the wellbeing of all its citizens.

‘The BIGI provides a much simpler way of tackling gender inequality and it focuses on aspects of life that are directly relevant to all people. 

‘Used alongside other existing indicators, it provides additional and different information to give a more complete assessment of gender equality, making it easier for policy-makers to introduce changes to improve the quality of life for both men and women.’ 

Nearly eight out of 10 companies and public sector bodies pay men more than women in the UK, a report from April 2018 found

Nearly eight out of 10 companies and public sector bodies pay men more than women in the UK, a report from April 2018 found

Researchers found the most developed countries in the world come closest to achieving true gender equality but there was a slight advantage for women. 

Women in the least developed countries however, nearly always fall behind men.

The authors of the research say this is predominantly due to fewer opportunities to get a good education.

There are an equal amount of nations with medium-level development that see men and women falling behind. 

Researchers say men’s disadvantage is largely due to a shorter healthy lifespan.  

Professor David Geary, from the Department of Psychological Sciences at the University of Missouri in the United States, added: ‘We sought to correct the bias towards women’s issues within existing measures and at the same time develop a simple measure that is useful in any country in the world, regardless of their level of economic development.’ 

WHAT IS THE GENDER PAY GAP?

On average, men working in the UK earn between 9 per cent more than women in the same profession, numbers released by the Office for National Statistics show.

But in many professions the gulf is far larger – with female bank managers earning on average £39,995 a year – over a quarter (28.6 per cent) less than men on £58,070.

The data reveals that public sector staff are still on an average higher wage than those in the private sector – taking home £599 a week compared to £532.   

Male farmers take home more than 20 per cent more than women – earning on average £10,59 an hour rather than £8.39 an hour given to females.

The overwhelming majority of professions tend to pay more to men than women.

And research conducted in October 2017 showed that just three jobs do not have a gender pay gap at all – bar staff, medical and dental technicians, and waiters. 

From April 2018, all employers with more than 250 staff have been required by law to publish their gender pay gap online.

Figures also show that average weekly earnings for full-time employees in the UK were £550, up 2.2 per cent from £539 in 2016 and the highest rise since 2008. 

TUC (Trade Union Congress) comments say women are essentially working for free for the first 67 days of the year.

Justine Greening, women and equalities minister, said: ‘Eliminating the gender pay gap is key to building a stronger economy where everyone plays by the same rules.

‘It is simply good business sense to recognise the enormous potential of women and to take action to nurture and progress female talent.’

She added: ‘I’m now calling on employers across the country to get on with publishing their gender pay gap. They have until 31st March to do so.

‘By shining a light on where there are gaps, employers can take action and make sure that we are harnessing the talents and skills of men and women‎.’  

The University of Essex, which performed the research, made headlines in 2016 when it gave female staff a one-off pay rise in order to close the gender pay gap. 

It moved female professors up three newly created pay levels to raise their average salaries to the same as their male counterparts. 

Professor Stoet added: ‘We’re not saying that women in highly developed countries are not experiencing disadvantages in some aspects of their lives. 

‘What we are saying is that an ideal measure of gender equality is not biased to the disadvantages of either gender. 

‘Doing so, we find a different picture to the one commonly presented in the media.’ 

WHAT NATIONS ARE BEST FOR EQUALITY AND WHICH SEX IS BETTER OFF?
RANK NATION WHO IS BETTER OFF BIGI SCORE
1 Italy M 0.00021
2 Israel M 0.000626
3 Saudi Arabia F -0.001554
4 Azerbaijan F -0.002668
5 Indonesia F -0.003089
6 Singapore M 0.003147
7 Turkey F -0.006155
8 China M 0.00626
9 Macedonia M 0.006834
10 Malta F -0.007316
11 Switzerland F -0.007938
12 Bahrain F -0.007938
13 Madagascar M 0.009967
14 Zimbabwe F -0.010275
15 Kenya M 0.011129
16 Belgium F -0.011181
17 Guatemala M 0.012198
18 Albania F -0.012889
19 Bulgaria F -0.012899
20 Germany F -0.012993
21 Montenegro F -0.013121
22 Bosnia and Herzegovina F -0.013867
23 Canada F -0.014173
24 Great Britain F -0.014545
25 Kyrgyz Republic F -0.015089
26 Sweden F -0.015749
27 Netherlands F -0.01585
28 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) M 0.016475
29 Georgia F -0.016536
30 Serbia F -0.016696
31 Lebanon F -0.016971
32 New Zealand F -0.017086
33 Austria F -0.017387
34 Ireland F -0.017437
35 Iceland F -0.017683
36 Czech Rep. F -0.018326
37 Peru M 0.018633
38 Greece F -0.019161
39 Norway F -0.019498
40 Ecuador F -0.020118
41 Slovak Republic F -0.021043
42 Luxembourg F -0.021134
43 France F -0.021771
44 Slovenia F -0.02206
45 United Arab Emirates F -0.022441
46 Denmark F -0.023474
47 Hungary F -0.023612
48 Mauritius F -0.023808
49 Australia F -0.024204
50 Romania F -0.024549
51 Ukraine F -0.024807
52 Cyprus F -0.025501
53 Vietnam F -0.025981
54 El Salvador F -0.026453
55 Burundi M 0.027321
56 Croatia F -0.028319
57 Iran (Islamic Republic of) F -0.028983
58 Spain F -0.029903
59 Kuwait F -0.031057
60 Moldova (Republic of) F -0.032404
61 United States of America F -0.032937
62 Jordan F -0.03303
63 Chile F -0.033213
64 Egypt M 0.033329
65 Mexico F -0.035445
66 Malaysia F -0.035954
67 Kazakhstan F -0.035984
68 Paraguay F -0.035997
69 Rwanda M 0.036707
70 Brazil F -0.036775
71 Syria M 0.036803
72 Finland F -0.038021
73 Bangladesh F -0.038924
74 Russia F -0.039489
75 Botswana F -0.039531
76 Tajikistan M 0.039583
77 Lithuania F -0.039616
78 Korea (Republic of) F -0.041126
79 Algeria M 0.042841
80 Japan F -0.042856
81 Costa Rica F -0.043729
82 Latvia F -0.045333
83 Belarus F -0.045669
84 Uganda M 0.045679
85 Honduras F -0.046228
86 Estonia F -0.046312
87 Belize F -0.047942
88 Trinidad and Tobago F -0.048587
89 Panama F -0.049067
90 Cambodia M 0.049407
91 Poland F -0.050899
92 Tanzania (United Republic of) M 0.05197
93 Tunisia M 0.053817
94 Cameroon M 0.053832
95 Morocco M 0.053859
96 Ghana M 0.054422
97 Colombia F -0.055583
98 South Africa F -0.055597
99 Portugal F -0.056756
100 Sri Lanka F -0.057614
101 Jamaica F -0.058214
102 Namibia F -0.058658
103 Qatar F -0.059365
104 Argentina F -0.059598
105 Thailand F -0.061156
106 Armenia F -0.065226
107 Dominican Rep. F -0.066269
108 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) F -0.066533
109 Nicaragua F -0.06813
110 Malawi M 0.071353
111 Uruguay F -0.073659
112 Mongolia F -0.076926
113 Angola M 0.077184
114 Nepal M 0.081468
115 Zambia M 0.082919
116 Suriname F -0.084422
117 India M 0.084774
118 Yemen M 0.090227
119 Mauritania M 0.090505
120 Nigeria M 0.090757
121 Philippines F -0.09874
122 Bhutan M 0.109755
123 Senegal M 0.110049
124 Pakistan M 0.116173
125 Ethiopia M 0.116469
126 Cote d?Ivoire M 0.119953
127 Burkina Faso M 0.12362
128 Mozambique M 0.128963
129 Lesotho F -0.152642
130 Guinea M 0.153464
131 Liberia M 0.157644
132 Mali M 0.160473
133 Benin M 0.187256
134 Chad M 0.231138

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